Suspicious of the practices of one of its cardiologists, a hospital hired an independent expert to investigate. The expert examined records of 12 patients but “could not find support in any of the twelve cases” to implant pacemakers. The hospital terminated the doctor, and the government indicted him for health care fraud. During trial the government deployed an array of evidence including data mining, expert testimony, and evidence of an expensive lifestyle.  A report of the decision upholding conviction is available here, on the Sixth Circuit Appellate Blog.